The Vermont Statutes Online

Title 10 Appendix: Vermont Fish and Wildlife Regulations

Chapter 2: FISH

10 V.S.A. App. § 121. Rule establishing a list for prohibited, restricted and unrestricted fish species



§ 121. Rule establishing a list for prohibited, restricted and unrestricted fish species

1.0 Authority

1.1 This rule is adopted pursuant to 10 V.S.A § 4081(a) which provides that the protection, propagation, control, management, and conservation of fish, wildlife, and furbearing animals in this state is in the interest of the public welfare and that the safeguarding of these valuable resources for the people of the state requires a constant and continual vigilance, and in accordance with

1.2 10 V.S.A. § 4605(c) provides that the commissioner may, by rule, adopt a list of fish which, if introduced into Vermont waters, have the potential to cause harm to the fish population of the state.

2.0 Purpose

2.1 It is the purpose of this regulation to carry out the mandate of the Vermont General Assembly to control through a permit program the importation and possession of fish species as provided in 10 V.S.A. § 4605 (c) to guard the health of Vermont's fish populations by preventing the introduction of fish species that could have the potential to cause harm to fish populations of the state.

3.0 Definitions

3.1 "Fish" means all live fresh- and salt-water fish species including viable fish ovum and viable fish semen.

3.2 "Transgenic Fish" means any fish that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology. This definition does not include diploid, triploid, or hybrid-crossed fish.

3.3 "Department" means Vermont fish and wildlife department.

3.4 "Commissioner" means fish and wildlife department commissioner.

3.5 "Person" means an individual, association, corporation, partnership, or municipality, or other entity.

3.6 "State" means state of Vermont.

4.0 Importation and Possession of Live Fish

4.1 This rule establishes a list by which the importation and possession of fish shall be regulated.

4.1.1Prohibited Fish Species Section: Fish species for which importation into or possession within Vermont shall be prohibited except through a commissioner's Prohibited Fish Species Permit. This section of the list primarily includes species not native to the state that are known to pose a threat to Vermont's fish populations and/or aquatic ecosystems.

4.1.2 Restricted Fish Species Section: This section of the list primarily includes native and certain naturalized fish species which although they may not require a commissioner's Prohibited Fish Species Permit as set out in 4.1.1 above, may be regulated through other department permits including but not limited to 10 V.S.A. § 4605 (b) Importation of Fish; 10 V.S.A. § 5403, Protection of Endangered and Threatened Species; and 10 V.S.A. Appen. § 122, Fish Regulations.

4.1.3 Unrestricted Fish Species Section: This section of the list primarily includes species commonly imported into the state for the pet or aquarium trade and are currently considered to pose minimal or no risk to Vermont fish populations. A commissioner's Prohibited Fish Species Permit is not required to import or possess these species. Additionally, any species not on the Unrestricted, Restricted and Prohibited lists and which natural global distribution range occurs entirely within the bounds of the 30 north latitude and the 30 south latitude may be imported or possessed in Vermont without prior review and approval of the commissioner. Notwithstanding the foregoing, an importation permit is required for any fish brought into the state which are intended to be introduced into waters of the state as per 10 V.S.A. § 4605(b), and no fish shall be introduced into any waters except private ponds lacking access to other waters of the state as per 10 V.S.A. § 4605(a).

4.2 All fish species not included in the sections of the list covered by 4.1.2 (Restricted Fish Species Section) and 4.1.3 (Unrestricted Fish Species Section) shall also be considered to be Prohibited Fish Species.

4.3 The importation and/or possession of transgenic fishes shall be prohibited unless explicitly included in the Unrestricted Fish Species section.

5.0 Review, Revision & Maintenance of List

5.1 The commissioner may review and revise the species contained within the list. The public may submit any species of fish for consideration of inclusion in this list by submitting a written request with relevant documentation.

5.2 The department shall maintain an up-to-date list of prohibited, restricted, and unrestricted fish species and shall make this list available on the department's website, from the department's headquarters and from the department's district offices.

6.0 Permits

6.1 Prohibited Fish Species Permits. The commissioner may issue a commissioner's Prohibited Fish Species Permit allowing importation and possession of a fish on the Prohibited Fish Species section of the list.

6.1.1 In issuing a permit, the commissioner shall consider:

(a) How the fish are being kept in a controlled environment including but not limited to artificial tanks without inflow or outflow, and; without connection to waters of the state;

(b) Whether the purpose is for research;

(c) Whether the purpose is for education;

(d) Whether it is for public purpose;

(e) Whether there are available alternatives;

(f) The health of native or naturalized fish species.

6.1.2 A permit issued under this subsection shall include conditions that ensure the health and safety of Vermont's fish population.

6.2 Restricted Fish Species Permits. Fish in the Restricted Fish Species section do not require a commissioner's Prohibited Fish Species Permit. However, as noted in paragraph 4.1.2 above, other department permits may be required to import and/or possess fish listed in the Restricted Fish Species section.

7.0 Permit Applications

7.1 Applications for commissioner's Prohibited Fish Species Permits shall be complete and submitted to the department on an application form to be provided by the department. For an application to be considered complete, it shall be legible, shall contain all information requested by the department, shall contain no false statements, shall bear the applicant's official signature and shall be accompanied by the required application fee.

7.2 With regard to all fish, the applicant shall present to the department, as a requirement of the permit, written fish health inspection reports as the department may specify, and invoices clearly indicating the source of the fish to be imported. Fish health inspection reports shall be made by a qualified fish health inspector acceptable to the department.

8.0 Inspections

8.1 Persons holding a commissioner's Prohibited Fish Species Permit shall allow inspection at reasonable times of their premises, facilities, records, and fish by the commissioner or the commissioner's designee(s).

8.2 The issued permit shall be available for inspection by the Commissioner or the commissioner's designee(s).

9.0 Quarantine, Destruction or Sterilization Where Disease and/or Harmful Species are Present

9.1 The department may require a period of quarantine and treatment, the destruction of fish, and/or order remedial action if necessary, if a harmful fish species and/or fish pathogen is confirmed. This shall occur at the expense of the owner.

List of Prohibited, Restricted, and Unrestricted Fish Species

Prohibited Fish Species List

Designation

Scientific name (genus & species)

Common name(s)

Prohibited

Alosa pseudoharengus

Alewife

Prohibited

Aristichytys nobilis

Bighead carp

Prohibited

Common carassius

Crucian carp

Prohibited

Carassius gibelio

Prussian carp

Prohibited

Carassius cuvieri

Japanese (white (crucian carp)

Prohibited

Channa spp.

Asian snakehead

Prohibited

Clarias batrachus

Walking catfish

Prohibited

Ctenopharyngodon idella

Grass carp

Prohibited

Dorosoma cepedianum

Gizzard shad

Prohibited

Gambusia spp.

Mosquito fish

Prohibited

Gymnocephalus ceruus

Ruffle

Prohibited

Hypophthalmichthys harmandi

Large scale silver carp

Prohibited

Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

Silver carp

Prohibited

Leuciscus idus

Ide, orfe

Prohibited

Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

Oriental weather loach

Prohibited

Monopterus albus

Asian swamp eel

Prohibited

Mylopharyngodon piceus

Black carp

Prohibited

Neogobius melanostomus

Round goby

Prohibited

Parachanna spp.

African snakehead

Prohibited

Proterorhinus marmoratus

Tubenose goby

Prohibited

Rhodeus sericeus

Bitterling

Prohibited

Sander lucioperca

Zander

Prohibited

Scardinius erythrophthalmus

Rudd

Prohibited

Tinca tinca

Tench

Restricted Fish Species List

Designation

Scientific name (genus & species)

Common name(s)

Restricted

Acipenser fulvescens¹

Lake sturgeon¹

Restricted

Alosa aestivalis

Blueback herring

Restricted

Alosa sapidissima

American shad

Restricted

Ambloplites rupestris

Rock bass

Restricted

Ameiurus natalis

Yellow bullhead

Restricted

Ameiurus nebulosus

Brown bullhead

Restricted

Amia calva

Bowfin

Restricted

Ammocrypta pellucida¹

Eastern sand darter¹

Restricted

Anguilla rostrata

American eel

Restricted

Aplodinotus grunniens

Freshwater drum

Restricted

Carpiodes cyprinus

Quillback

Restricted

Catostomus catostomus²

Longnose sucker²

Restricted

Catostomus commersoni

White sucker

Restricted

Coregonus artedi

Cisco or lake herring

Restricted

Coregonus clupeaformis

Lake whitefish

Restricted

Cottus bairdi

Mottled sculpin

Restricted

Cottus cognatus

Slimy sculpin

Restricted

Couesius plumbeus

Lake chub

Restricted

Culeas inconstans

Brook stickleback

Restricted

Cyprinella spiloptera

Spotfin shiner

Restricted

Cyprinus carpio

Common carp, mirror carp, koi

Restricted

Esox americanus americanus

Redfin pickerel

Restricted

Esox lucius

Northern pike

Restricted

Esox masquinongy

Muskellunge

Restricted

Esox niger

Chain pickerel

Restricted

Etheostoma flabellare

Fantail darter

Restricted

Etheostoma olmstedi

Tessellated darter

Restricted

Exoglossum maxillingua

Cutlips minnow

Restricted

Fundulus diaphinus

Banded killifish

Restricted

Hiodon tergisus

Mooneye

Restricted

Hybognathus hankinsoni

Brassy minnow

Restricted

Hybognathus regius²

Eastern silvery minnow²

Restricted

Ichthyomyzon fossor¹

Northern brook lamprey¹

Restricted

Ichthyomyzon unicuspis

Silver lamprey

Restricted

Ictalurus punctatus

Channel catfish

Restricted

Labidesthes sicculus

Brook silverside

Restricted

Lampetra appendix¹

American brook lamprey¹

Restricted

Lepisosteus osseus

Longnose gar

Restricted

Lepomis auritus

Redbreast sunfish

Restricted

Lepomis gibbosus

Pumpkinseed

Restricted

Lepomis macrochirus

Bluegill

Restricted

Lepomis microlophus

Redear sunfish

Restricted

Lota lota

Burbot

Restricted

Luxilus cornutus²

Common shiner²

Restricted

Margariscus margarita

Pearl dace

Restricted

Micropterus dolomieui

Smallmouth bass

Restricted

Micropterus salmoides

Largemouth bass

Restricted

Morone Americana

White perch

Restricted

Morone saxatilis

Striped bass

Restricted

Moxostoma anisurum

Silver redhorse

Restricted

Moxostoma macrolepidotum

Shorthead redhorse

Restricted

Moxostoma valenciennesi

Greater redhorse

Restricted

Notemigonus crysoleucas²

Golden shiner²

Restricted

Notropis atherinoides²

Emerald shiner²

Restricted

Notropis bifrenatus

Bridle shiner

Restricted

Notropis heterodon

Blackchip shiner

Restricted

Notropis heterolepis

Blacknose shiner

Restricted

Notropis hudsonius²

Spottail shiner²

Restricted

Notropis rubellus

Rosyface shiner

Restricted

Notropis stramineus

Sand shiner

Restricted

Notropis volucellus²

Mimic shiner²

Restricted

Noturus flavus¹

Stonecat¹

Restricted

Oncorhynchus mykiss

Rainbow trout

Restricted

Oreochromis spp.

Tilapia spp.

Restricted

Osmerus mordax²

Rainbow smelt²

Restricted

Perca flavescens²

Yellow perch²

Restricted

Percina copelandi¹

Channel darter¹

Restricted

Percina caprodes

Logperch

Restricted

Percopsis omiscomayas

Trout-perch

Restricted

Petromyzon marinus

Sea lamprey

Restricted

Phoxinus eos²

Northern redbelly dace²

Restricted

Phoxinus neogaeus

Finescale dace

Restricted

Pimephales notatus²

Bluntnose minnow²

Restricted

Pimaphales promelas²

Fathead minnow²

Restricted

Pomoxis annularis

White crappie

Restricted

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Black crappie

Restricted

Prosopium cylindraceum

Round whitefish

Restricted

Rhinichthys atratulus²

Blacknose dace²

Restricted

Rhinichthys cataractae²

Longnose dace²

Restricted

Salmo salar

Atlantic salmon

Restricted

Salmo trutta

Brown trout

Restricted

Salvelinus fontinalis

Brook trout

Restricted

Salvelinus namaycush

Lake trout

Restricted

Sander canadense

Sauger

Restricted

Sander vitreum

Walleye

Restricted

Semotilus atromaculatus²

Creek chub²

Restricted

Semotilus corporalis²

Fallfish²

Restricted

Sarotheradon spp.

Tilapia spp.

Restricted

Tilapia spp.

Tilapia spp.

Restricted

Unbra limi

Central mudminnow

1 Species subject to 10 V.S.A. § 5402, Endangered and Threatened Species Lists

Unrestricted Fish Species Section.

Families notes with an asterisk indicate the global distribution of some species may lie outside the unrestricted zone.

(30_ North latitude-30_ South latitude). Such species will be considered prohibited as per 4.1.1 of this rule.

Family

Genera

Ancestrorhynchidae Smallscale pike characins

Ancestrorhynchus

Achiridae American soles

Trinectes

Alestidae African tetras

Penacogrammus

Ambassidae Loach catfishes

Phractura

Anabantidae Climbing gouramies

Ctenopoma, Microctenopoma

Anablepidae Four-eyed fishes, one-sided

livebearers, white-eye

Anableps

Anostomidae Headstanders

Abramites, Anostomus, Lawmolyta, Leporinus, Pseudanos

Aplocheilidae* Rivulines

Aplocheilus

Ariidaeae Sea catfishes

Arius

Aspredinidae Banjo catfishes

Bunocephalus

Auchenipteridae Driftwood catfishes

Auchenipterichthys, Liosomadorus

Badidae Blue Perch, Dwarf

Chameleon Fish

Badis

Bagridae Bagrid catfishes

Bagrichthys, Horabagrus, Mystus, Pseudomystus

Balitoridae River loaches

Beaufortia, Gastromyzon, Schistura

Bedotiidae Madagascar rainbowfishes

Bedotia

Belonidae Needlefishes

Xenentodon

Callichthyidae Callichthyd armored catfishes

Brochis, Callichthys, Corydoras, Dianema, Hoplosternum, Megalechis

Chacidae Squarehead or angler catfish

Chaca

Characidae Characins

Aphyocharax, Astyanax, Boehlkea, Boulengerella, Chalceus, Charax, Gymnocorymbus, Hasemania, Hemigrammus, Hyphessobrycon, Impaichthys, Megalamphodus, Metynnis, Moenkhausia, Myleus, Mylossoma, nematobrycon, Paracheirodon, Piaractus, Prionobrama, Pristella, Thayeria, Triportheus

Chilodontidae

Chilodus

Cichlidae Cichlids

Aequidens, Altolamprologus, Amphilophus, Apistogramma, Archocentrus, Astronotus, Aulonocara, Cichla, Cichlasoma, Cleithracara, Crenicichla, Cyathopharynx, Cyphotilapia, Cyrtocara, Dimidiochromis, Etroplus, Geophagus, Gymnogeophagus, Heplochromis, Hemichormis, Herichthys, Heros, Herotilapia, Hypselecara, Iodotropheus, Julidochromis, Labeotropheus, Labidochromis, Laetacara, Lamprologus, Lepidolamprologus, Limnochromis, Lobochilotes, Maylandia, Melanochromis, Mesonauta, Mikrogeophagus, Nannacara, Neolamprologus, Nimbochromis, Parachromis, Pelvicachromis, Placidochromis, Protomelas, Pseudocrenilabrus, Pseudotropheus, Pterophyllum, Rhamphochromis, Satanoperca, Sciaenochromis, Steatocranus, Symphysodon,Telmatochromis, Thorichthys, Tematochromis, Variabilichromis, Vieja

Citharinidae Lutefishes

Distichodus

Cobitidae* Loaches

Botia, Lepidocephalichthys, Lepidocephalus, Pangio, Syncrossus, Yasuhikotakia

Ctenoluciidae Pike-characids

Ctenolucius

Cyprinidae* Minnows & carps

Balantiocheilos, Barbichthys, Barbonymus,Borasas, Carassius auratus, Crossocheilus, Cyclocheilichthys, Danio, Epalzeorhynchus, Esomus, Hampala, Labeo, Leptobarbus, Luciosoma, Oreichthys, Puntius, Puntioplites, Rasbora, Tanichthys, Trigostigma

Cyprinidae Minnows & carps

Danio rerio (GloFish®)

Cyprinodontidae* Pupfishes

Jordanella floridae

Datnioididae

Datnioides

Doradidae Thorny catfishes

Acanthodoras, Agamyxis, Amblydoras, Platydoras

Eleotridae Sleepers

Butis, Oxyeleotris

Erethistidae South Asian river catfishes

Horas

Erythrinidae Trahiras

Hoplias

Gasteropelecidae Freshwater hatchetfishes

Carnegiella, Gasteropelecus, Thoracocharax

Gobiidae* Gobies

Brachygobius, Gnatholepis, Gobioides, Stigmatogobius

Gymnarchidae

Gymnarchus

Gyrinocheilidae Algae eaters

Gyrinocheilus

Helostomatidae Kissing gourami

Helostoma

Hemiodontidae

Hemiodus

Hemiramphidae Halfbeaks

Dermogenys

Hypopomidae Bluntnose knifefishes

Hypopygus, Steatogenys

Lebiasinidae Pencilfishes

Nannostomus

Lepidosirenidae Aestivating lungfishes

Lepidosiren

Loricariidae Armored catfishes

Ancistrus, Baryancistrus, Cephalosilurus, Chaestostoma, Dekeyseria, Farlowella, Glyptoperichthys, Hemiancistrus, Hypancistrus, Hypstomus, Lasiancistrus, Leporacanthicus, Otocinclus, Panaque, Peckoltia, Pseudacanthicus, Pseudolithoxus, Pterosturisoma, Pterygoplichthys, Rineloricaria, Sturisoma

Mastacembelidae Spiny eels

Macrognathus, Mastacembelus

Melanotaeniidae Rainbowfishes, blue eyes

Chilathernia, Iriathernia, Melanotaenia

Mochokidae Squeakers of upside-down

Catfishes

Synodontis

Monodactylidae Moonyfishes of fingerfishes

Monodactylus

Mormyridae Elephantfishes

Campylomormyrus, Gnathonemus, Mormyrops, Pollimyrus

Muraenidae Moray eels

Gymnothorax

Nandidae Asian leaffishes

Polycentripsis

Nothobranchiidae African rivulines

Aphyosemion, Epipltys, Nothobranchius

Notopteridae Featherbacks or knifefishes

Chitala, Xenomystus

Osphronemidae Gouramies

Betta, Colisa, Spaerichthys, Trichogaster, Trichopsis

Osteoglossidae Arowanas

Osteoglossum

Pangasiidae Shark catfishes

Pangasius

Pantodontidae Freshwater butterflyfish

Pantodon

Pimelodidae Long-whiskered catfishes

Leiarius, Phractocephalus, Pimelodella, Pimelodus, Sorubim

Poeciliidae* Poeciliids

Poecilia, Xiphophorus

Polycentridae Leaffishes

Monocirrhus, Polycentrus

Polynemidae Threadfins

Polynemus

Polypteridae Bichirs

Erpetoichthys, Polypterus

Potamotrygonidae River stingrays

Potamotrygon

Prochilodontidae Flannel-mouth characiformes

Semaprochilodus

Pseudomugilidae Blue eyes

Pseudomulgil

Pseudopimelodide Bumblebee catfishes, dwarf

marble catfishes

Microglanis

Rhamphichthyidae Sand knifefishes

Rhamphichthys

Scatophagidae Scats

Scatophagus

Schilbeidae Schilbid catfishes

Eutropiellus, Paraila, Schilbe

Siluridae Sheatfishes

Kryptopterus, Ompok

Sternopygidae Glass knifefishes

Eigenmannia

Synbranchidae Swamp-eels

Synbranchus

Syngnathidae Pipefishes, seahorses

Microphis

Telmatherinidae Sailfin silversides

Marosatherina

Tetraodontidae Puffers

Carinotetraodon, Tetraodon

Teraponitidae Grunters or tigerperches

Terapon

Toxootidae Archerfishes

Toxotes

Added 2009, Fish and Wildlife Board Reg., eff. January 10, 2010.